Top 3 methods for measuring salt in food products

By Hank Levi on Thu, Jul 10, 2014 @ 04:41 PM

You may be saying to yourself, "Wait a minute! Last time you wrote about salt testing you said there were really only 2 popular methods being used.  What's going on and what is this 3rd method all about?"

Well, you are right.  Historically we have written about and discussed 2 popular methods where operators used either conductivity meters and, or, titration for testing salt in food products.  But recently we have seen a new development for testing salt levels in food products and thought it should be shared with you.  Before we do, let's review.

A quick overview on Salt:salt

When we talk about salt we need to agree on the terminology. 

Table salt or "salt" that we think about in our foods is known as sodium chloride (NaCl).  Although you cannot find NaCl on the periodic table of elements shown below, you can see both sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl).   What's the deal with chlorine you say?  Well, chlorine under standard conditions is actually a yellow-green gas but when chlorine atoms gain one electron they become a chloride ion (Cl-).  Since an ion cannot remain in a free state all by itself it must combine with another element(s) to form a compound.  Chloride (Cl-) is therefore a by-product of the reaction between chlorine (Cl) and an electrolyte such as sodium (Na).  Hence, sodium chloride (NaCl) is known as an Ionic Compound.  There are other "related" chlorides (Ionic Compounds) but not as common and they are; calcium chloride, magnesium chloride and potassium chloride (we will save a discussion about these chlorides for another blog post).

Sodium chloride (NaCl) is naturally occurring in much of the earth's crust and can be found in places like the Great Salt Lake Basin in Utah.  A gift to this earth, nature, and our bodies!  You see, the human body needs both sodium and chloride to function properly although it's worth mentioning that there is still debate about the effects of chloride levels in the body as comparedNa with the more well known negative effects we associate with sodium (Na) and high blood pressure. 

So, when we talk about measuring and monitoring salt levels we generally are saying that we want to know how much sodium (Na) is present.  Since table salt is Na+Cl- (NaCl) then, we approach our testing for NaCl accordingly based on the ratios of each elements atomic weight and mass percent:

[NaCl = 39.3372% Na + 60.6628% Cl]

These numbers are significant because if we look for (Cl) then we can determine (Na) and or (NaCl) by doing simple math, e.g. if you can find (Cl) then you can back into (NaCl) or determine (Na).

example

 

 

 

 

 

So that's it for the salt review, lets move on to the testing methods.

 

Method #1 - A review of the Conductivity Method:

"Conductivity meters" are based on the conductivity of water and is a measure of the waters ability to pass an electrical current.  Water with more ions present will conduct more electrical current.  Seawater has more ions and is more conductive than fresh water.  In our example for testing salt (NaCl) the chloride (Cl) readily dissolves in water.  The fact that chloride (Cl) dissolves in water is key.  The more chlorides (Cl) that dissolve, the greater the number of conductive ions that will be present and therefore increase the conductivity of the water, and vice versa for lesser amounts.  The conductivity levels measured then are compared with known standards and tables like seawater.  These numbers can then be reported in micro Siemens per centimeter or other conversion scales.

The conductivity method is an indirect measurement but it is easy and fast (several seconds).  It tends to be less accurate than other methods and has some limitations with the range of measurement.

 

Method #2 - A review of the popular titration method (mohr's method):

Titration can be performed manually or by using an automatic titrator.  This popular titration method determines the chloride ion concentration.  Silver nitrate is used as the indicator and is added until all of the chloride ions are precipitated.  So, this method also measures the amount of chloride (Cl) and uses the mass percent weights to determine sodium chloride (NaCl) and or sodium (Na).

This method for measuring salt is more involved, takes a little more time (3 to 6 minutes usually), but is very accurate to the parts per million (PPM) level.  The titration method does require the use of a silver electrode/ph electrode (or combined silver electrode), silver nitrate, and someone who understands how to run the method (manual or via automatic titrator).

 

Method #3 - A new method?  Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR):

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)?  Huh?  Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has been around since 1938 and has benefited the field of chemistry and medicine in important ways, helping researchers and chemist to identify and measure certain elements found on the periodic table.

 

The Periodic Table

 

It's only now that technology has allowed for the miniaturization of the components (magnets, etc) necessary for making a benchtop NMR device.  This greater access and ease of use with NMR technology has the potential not only for researchers and chemist but for main-stream industry to find new and useful applications for testing materials with NMR. 

So, if you can see where this is going then, YES, you guessed it.  NMR can identify and measure sodium (Na) directly with part per million (PPM) accuracy.  I will say it again, this method measures total sodium (Na) directly with part per million (PPM) accuracy.  (NaCl) and (Cl) can be determined also as we know the mass percentages for these elements.  

Although it's a new concept for the food industry this new approach for measuring sodium could prove promising because it is easy, accurate to the part per million (PPM) level, and quick too (about 30 seconds per test).  

 

                      Learn more about salt testing using (NMR)

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How to test for Salt during food production

By Hank Levi on Mon, Oct 31, 2011 @ 12:53 PM

SaltMany companies produce the foods we eat.  Do you ever wonder why or how they test for salt during the production process?

Examples by Manufacturing Type

Frozen Vegetable Processor

The salt content of the blanching water is important for maintaining the bright colors of vegetables

A Condiment Manufacturer

Testing Sauces and dressings

A Cheese Maker

Measure the salinity of saltwater that the cheese is soaked in

A Potato Chips Manufacturer

Checking for salt sprinkled on fried potato slices

A fresh Cut Fruit Processor

Use a 2% saline solution with a small amount of ascorbic acid to prevent discoloration of fruits

A Deli Food Supplier

Measure foods with a salt meter vs. by taste

A Canned Food Manufacturing Plant

Measure the brine for canned tuna

A Pickles Manufacturer

Measure the salinity of the brine for salt-packed products

A Cold Cut Meat Manufacturer

Measure salt concentration of ham and deli slices

A Baker

Measure and monitor the salinity of bread dough to around 1%-2%

 

 

 

Salt which is made up of 40% sodium and 60% Chloride is an important ingredient found in food.  While salt can make food taste better, control color, and maintain food texture, it is also considered a health-risk factor (mostly due to the sodium).  Measuring and controlling the levels of salt between the extremes is a constant battle.  Producers of processed foods generally have the biggest need for identifying and controlling salt levels to address not only the taste, color, and texture of foods but also to address some of the healthier eating lifestyles more and more consumers are demanding.

For these reasons it is paramount that salt is measured accurately.  So how do we do that?

Food comes in a variety of forms.  Solid, Liquids, pastes, creams, pieces, chunks, wafers, crackers, gooey, sauces, liquids with chunks in them...let's see what else..Anyway, you get the idea.  There are a lot of ways food can be produced and consumed!

So what device or devices can we use to measure the salt found in these numerous forms of processed foods?

Well, there are a number of "salt meters" out there that can measure salt.  However, not all salt meters can measure the particular salt you are looking for in the same way.  In fact some "salt meters" can only measure salt under certain conditions and or in certain substances like water or sea water.  For this reason it is important to first consider what your going to be testing.  For example, If your food sample includes "food stuff particles" that you can grind into a paste form, then you can probably use a salt meter that utilizes the conductivity method.  On the other hand if you have a brine that you immerse food into and your only concerned with the liquid then perhaps a different salt meter will work.  

The point is this.  The form of the food at the instant you are going to perform the test is key.  Many types of foods can be formed into pastes and diluted with water.  If the food you need to test is like this then a simple salt meter utilizing the conductivity method may be able to perform the test to your satisfaction.  I say may because % salt levels and other accuracy factors may require that you use an entirely different method of titration known as silver nitrate titration instead.

Salt Meter vs. Titration?

describe the image               Titrator

A brief explanation and description of the two measurement approaches:

The Mohr method, also known as a silver nitrate titration method, utilizes the characteristics of silver nitrate that reacts with chloride ions to measure the salinity %. 

Created on 10/31/11 at 10:37:41

Conversley, some of the more popular salt meters emloy the electric conductivity method.  Both methods measure the salinity but operate on different measurement principles.  However, by creating a conversion table between the two testing methods, correlation between the set of results can be seen.

Created on 10/31/11 at 10:41:32  

Aside from the measurement capabilities of each approach there are pros and cons to each.

 
 Pro's and Con's

 

Salt Meter

Titration

 Measurement Range

Less..maybe

More

 Accuracy

Less

 More

 Ease of Use

More

 Less

 Time to test

Less

 More

 Cost

 Less

 More

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

While each method has benefits we have recently found through some informal surveying that some food processors are choosing to use both methods.  These companies are finding that it is easier to use the hand held devices and perform quick spot checks on the production line.  If any problems are identified on the production line then further verification and testing can be performed using the titration approach.  Some think using this collaborative approach is ideal.smiley2

 

ALSO READ OUR MOST RECENT UPDATES TO THIS BLOG POST : Salt related posts

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