Electrode Shower Cleaning for Auto Titrator Sample Changers

By Hank Levi on Thu, Feb 25, 2016 @ 12:04 PM


ELECTRODE RINSE WITH SHOWER ACCESSORY:

Sample changers that are connected with automatic titrators generally are there for a reason.  Efficiency. From an operators point of view getting multiple tests done quickly while being able to take on other tasks in the lab is a key productivity booster.  Sample changers offer various sizes ranging from as few as 6 positions for samples up to some of the largest exceeding 50 sample positions.  Sample changers either have rotating carousels or an arm that moves electrodes and nozzles from sample to sample.  Each time a sample test is completed the electrode must be cleaned before moving on to the next test.  Many sample changers offer as standard a dip rinse between sample testing and as the name suggests it's really nothing more then dipping the electrode in clean water or solution.  For some samples this process is sufficent but for others it is not enough to effectively clean the electrode before the next test.  Luckily most manufacturers of sample changers offer additional cleaning power with the use of a shower rinse system.   Below is a video showing how a shower rinse process works.   Water is stored in a container and then is flushd and rinsed in one of the sample positions designated as the cleaning station.  Water is evacuated via tubes to a drain or sink.  


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

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How to measure salt in potato chips using an automatic titrator

By Hank Levi on Mon, Oct 12, 2015 @ 04:22 PM


There are still many who test salt content by hand and so the thought of using an automatic titrator might sound intimidating.  It's not. Really.  So we thought it would help if we made some videos to explain some of the basic steps involved and show for those who have never seen one what a titrator looks like.  To be sure there are many capable titrators that can do the job so don't get completely caught up in which one is best but think more about the benefits of automating a test that is repeated many times daily.  

In the following videos we provide a step by step look at how a sample (potato chips) would be prepared and tested using an automatic titrator with the help of a 6 position sample changer.  

VIDEO DEMONSTRATION:  Testing Salt in Potato Chips with Titrator


WHAT YOUR GOING TO NEED IN ADDITION TO THE TITRATOR:

1. Silver Nitrate; 1.0 or 0.1 normal strength (This is the titrant that you will use)

2. Combined silver electrode (it's a silver and pH electrode combined)

THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW:

1.  How do you currently prep your sample.  This process should not really change.  Sample prep is important though and should be considered.

2. Know the ingredients of your sample.  You should have a pretty good idea about the types of chlorides and sodium that may be found in your sample.

 

Ask for more information  



 

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Review of KEM's new 2015 titration line

By Hank Levi on Tue, Jun 09, 2015 @ 04:11 PM


Review of KEM's new 2015 titration line 

AT-710S_M Automatic Titrator

I don't know about you but I have to admit that I enjoy learning about new technology.  Whether it's smart phones, cars, or kitchen appliances I think it's fun to find out about how a product has changed (hopefully for the better). For the most part a lot of consumer products see a change or upgrade about once every year. This is not really the case for titrators where maybe it's only every 6 to 8 years before we see a new generation unveiled.  I guess that's why I thought maybe it would be a good idea to take a look at this new 710 series that came out in February 2015.  I haven't actually ever written a "review" before so I decided to start by comparing what I know about some of the current titrator models and identify the things that pop out with the new titration line.   Here are my observations and comments.


Link to pictures and information about the 710 series titrators: http://info.scientificgear.com/kem-titrator-710-series-information


 

1. There are now three model levels; entry, mid-level, and flagship within each category (volumetric Karl Fischer, coulometric Karl Fischer, and automatic potentiometric titrator) 

My comment: I like the scale of the models as it can be helpful for those with varied budgets and needs.  I like the concept that you can start with getting only the basic model at first and then later bring in the flagship model and tie them all together into one system.  It will be interesting to see how people approach these options and whether the ability to expand a system is desirable or not.
710_series_titrator_with_2_burettes

2. All of the automatic titrators now can accommodate two burette drives

My comment: The automatic titrators come with one burette drive but being able to add a second burette drive allows an operator to run two separate titrations (titrants) without having to use an automatic piston burette.  Historically most titrator manufacturers offered only a single burette drive but it seems like this is changing.  It's kind of a big deal for those who run two different titrations and don't want to purchase an automatic piston burette.  I like this new capability.

3.  A new burette design for the automatic titrators and volumetric Karl Fischer titrators.

SmartBuretteUnit

My comment: The burettes appear they will be easier to store and swap as the titrant bottle, burette and nozzles all go together as one smaller unit.   The burettes are now "smart" burettes and can store all of the reagent information within the head of the burette.  I like this.

4.  More Input/Output options for operators to move  and store data.  I/O options include LAN connectivity/URL, USB hubs, USB thumb drive ports, .CSV file format, .PDF file format, barcode readers, foot switches, and keyboards.710seriesUSB

My comment:  More technology is built into these units. I think it was overdue so I am glad to see it finally arrive.

AT710_w_propeller_or_magnetic_stirrer

5.  Automatic Titrators now come with a propeller stirrer by default but can swap for a magnetic stirrer instead.

My comment: I like the option to do both but I think maybe the magnetic stirrer should have been the default and the propeller as the option.

 

6.  A new Wireless/ Wired 8.4 inch color touch panel controller (MCU).

MCU_screen_view_with_multiple_units

My comment: This only comes with the mid-range and the flagship models.  The controller can sit next to the titrator or be carried around like a clipboard.  Operators can control the titrator through protective glass if necessary.  I'm not sure how many people will elect to use the wireless vs. the wired connection but it's nice to have the added capability.  Nice.


7.  Multi-titrator integration.  The wireless/wired MCU can control up to 4 different titrators simultaneously (any combination of Karl Fischer or automatic titrator) 

MCU_controller for 710 series titrators

My comment: This feature is reserved for the flagship model.  I can see this being useful for those needing to run both moisture and acid for example.  Unfortunately the mid-level model MCU cannot be upgraded to the MCU flagship model so if you think you might expand later don't go with the S model.  Your better off getting the basic "B" model and then later tying them all together from the flagship model.

 710seriesmulticontrol

8.  Free method making software.

My comment:  All of the titrators now come with a CD that allows you to create methods on your PC and then transfer methods to the titrator.  You can also pull methods off of the titrator and edit it in the PC.  The software also comes with various popular methods pre-loaded to help get methods setup quicker.  I'm not so sure how robust this software is but free is nice.

CDstoredmethods




CONCLUSION:

Well I hope this was helpful in finding out quickly what the updates are for the new 710 series.  At this point since it's so new we will have to wait to evaluate how customers feel about their user experience and get their feedback on what they liked most and what they liked least.  If you have any questions or comments you can email me at info@scientificgear.com



 

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Automatic Titrator with Mini Sample Changer Video

By Hank Levi on Tue, Nov 20, 2012 @ 11:11 AM

AT-700 Automatic Titrator

The AT-700 automatic titrator provides operators a variety of choices including the use of an Mini Sample Changer CHA-700integrated mini sample changer.  The mini sample changer can hold up to 6 samples.  The design utilizes a rotating arm that holds the electrode(s), dispensing nozzle(s), and propeller stirrer above each sample and maneuvers from sample to sample.  The compact design allows a small footprint on the bench because the titrator sits on top of the sample changer.  Watch the short demo video to learn more about this titration system.

 

        Get more information here 

 

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Automatic Titrator AT-700

By Hank Levi on Mon, Nov 05, 2012 @ 02:31 PM

Automatic Titrator AT-700

The AT-700 automatic titrator is a new compact potentiometric titrator.  The unit is ideal for conducting basic end-point titrations all the way up to more complex configurations that can include a sample changer, an additional permanent burette, to a chain of 8 automatic piston burettes (APBs).  The titrator can work stand alone or pair with advanced computer controlled software. 

Watch the video to learn and see more.

 

 

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Titration: Bromine number vs. Bromine Index

By Hank Levi on Mon, Aug 27, 2012 @ 12:09 PM

BROMINE TITLEDon’t know whether you need to run a Bromine Number or Bromine Index?  Not sure what the difference is between Electrometric or Coulometric?  And just how many approved ASTM methods are there, anyway? 

Well, a good place to start is to check out the comparison table below and evaluate your sample(s) with respect to the scope & limits of products listed for each method.

If you’re trying to decide which of the last two Bromine Index methods to use, remember that the D1492 Coulometric method is most often employed for materials having very low expected values ( > ~20).

Be careful about converting back and forth between the two using that factor of 1000.  You can safely convert a Bromine Index to a Bromine Number by dividing it by 1000, but it’s not OK to derive a Bromine Index from a Bromine Number by multiplying the Number by 1000.

                                         DOWNLOAD A COPY

 


 

Interested in getting more detailed information on how to do Bromine using your Karl Fischer titrator? 

              Get the complete Karl Fischer method here

  Bromine Chart

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What are Karl Fischer Water Standards and what do the numbers mean?

By Hank Levi on Thu, Feb 09, 2012 @ 01:44 PM

Most everyone working with Karl Fischer Titration at some point ends up wanting to check their instrument for accuracy and overall operational readiness.  Karl Fischer Water Standards were made to assist operators with making these operational checks.  Sometimes however we find there is some confusion about the choice of water standards available and what the numbers mean.

Karl Fischer Titration Water Standard Video from Scientificgear on Vimeo.

Hydranal water standards provide a few popular choices for both coulometric and volumetric Karl Fischer Titrators:

  • Hydranal 0.1 (100PPM ±10% error acceptance)
  • Hydranal 1.0 (1,000PPM ±3% error acceptance)
  • Hydranal 10.0 (10,000PPM)

So what do the numbers mean?  0.1, 1.0, 10.0?

Simply put, these numbers tell us the amount of moisture (H2O) that is present in 1 gram of the water standard.  The amount of moisture (H2O) is expressed as milligrams on the packaging.  Using the Hydranal 1.0 for example we say there is 1.0 milligram of moisture (H2O) in 1 gram of the water standard.  Did you know there are 1,000 micrograms per 1.0 milligram?  Yes there is.  So instead of thinking in terms of 1 milligram per 1 gram of water standard, think in terms of 1,000 micrograms per 1 gram of water standard.  Why?

Karl Fischer Titrators count moisture in micrograms!

Since Karl Fischer Titrators count moisture in micrograms it's easier to think about the water standards in terms of micrograms.  Why?

We evaluate our water standard test in PPM

For the Hydyanal 1.0 we are looking for results within ±3% of 1,000PPM (970PPM to 1030PPM).  For the Hydranal 0.1 we are looking for results within ±10% of 100PPM (90PPM to 110PPM).

 

Don't forget this formula!:

PPM = WATER DETECTED IN MICROGRAMS/SAMPLE SIZE IN GRAMS

(For those who don't know PPM stands for Parts Per Million)

We hope this information has been helpful.

 Created on 02/09/12 at 13:36:32

 

 

 

 

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How to use a titrator to measure % sodium chloride in food products

By Hank Levi on Sun, Dec 18, 2011 @ 03:57 PM

Automatic Titrator

Titration

So you need to measure the amount of sodium chloride in your food products. While we have written about this topic previously in other posts and addressed some of the approaches used to test for % sodium chloride (including the use of hand-held salt meters) we have found that it is a more common practice to use an automatic titrator to accomplish this task.  In fact we think it is the preferred instrument and method of choice.  To be sure there are pros and cons to using different methods but we still find that titration is accepted as the primary method for getting the most accurate results.

 

How it's used

Although salt meters using the conductive method are faster (3 seconds vs. 2 to 3 mintues) and can be employed quickly in a production line process, titrators can also be implemented in the same testing environment with modest effort.  Additionally and regardless of how the tests were performed on the production line, titrators are generally put to work in the Quality Control/Quality Assurance Lab as a final check against periodic production line testing.

Supporting the use of titration as an accepted method includes some well known documented techniques including Mohr's and Volhard's methods making titration a recognized and trusted approach.

 

What's next...

Once you have made the decsion to use titration as the testing method it's just a matter of knowing:

  • What items you need

  • How to prep your sample

  • How to setup the titrator

Luckily we have already thought about this and put together a list of 8 items your going to need.  We also created an application-note providing step-by-step instructions for you to follow to conduct a titration.

                                 

                                         Created on 12/18/11 at 12:16:27  

 

                                           Created on 12/18/11 at 13:00:41

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How to test for Salt during food production

By Hank Levi on Mon, Oct 31, 2011 @ 12:53 PM

SaltMany companies produce the foods we eat.  Do you ever wonder why or how they test for salt during the production process?

Examples by Manufacturing Type

Frozen Vegetable Processor

The salt content of the blanching water is important for maintaining the bright colors of vegetables

A Condiment Manufacturer

Testing Sauces and dressings

A Cheese Maker

Measure the salinity of saltwater that the cheese is soaked in

A Potato Chips Manufacturer

Checking for salt sprinkled on fried potato slices

A fresh Cut Fruit Processor

Use a 2% saline solution with a small amount of ascorbic acid to prevent discoloration of fruits

A Deli Food Supplier

Measure foods with a salt meter vs. by taste

A Canned Food Manufacturing Plant

Measure the brine for canned tuna

A Pickles Manufacturer

Measure the salinity of the brine for salt-packed products

A Cold Cut Meat Manufacturer

Measure salt concentration of ham and deli slices

A Baker

Measure and monitor the salinity of bread dough to around 1%-2%

 

 

 

Salt which is made up of 40% sodium and 60% Chloride is an important ingredient found in food.  While salt can make food taste better, control color, and maintain food texture, it is also considered a health-risk factor (mostly due to the sodium).  Measuring and controlling the levels of salt between the extremes is a constant battle.  Producers of processed foods generally have the biggest need for identifying and controlling salt levels to address not only the taste, color, and texture of foods but also to address some of the healthier eating lifestyles more and more consumers are demanding.

For these reasons it is paramount that salt is measured accurately.  So how do we do that?

Food comes in a variety of forms.  Solid, Liquids, pastes, creams, pieces, chunks, wafers, crackers, gooey, sauces, liquids with chunks in them...let's see what else..Anyway, you get the idea.  There are a lot of ways food can be produced and consumed!

So what device or devices can we use to measure the salt found in these numerous forms of processed foods?

Well, there are a number of "salt meters" out there that can measure salt.  However, not all salt meters can measure the particular salt you are looking for in the same way.  In fact some "salt meters" can only measure salt under certain conditions and or in certain substances like water or sea water.  For this reason it is important to first consider what your going to be testing.  For example, If your food sample includes "food stuff particles" that you can grind into a paste form, then you can probably use a salt meter that utilizes the conductivity method.  On the other hand if you have a brine that you immerse food into and your only concerned with the liquid then perhaps a different salt meter will work.  

The point is this.  The form of the food at the instant you are going to perform the test is key.  Many types of foods can be formed into pastes and diluted with water.  If the food you need to test is like this then a simple salt meter utilizing the conductivity method may be able to perform the test to your satisfaction.  I say may because % salt levels and other accuracy factors may require that you use an entirely different method of titration known as silver nitrate titration instead.

Salt Meter vs. Titration?

describe the image               Titrator

A brief explanation and description of the two measurement approaches:

The Mohr method, also known as a silver nitrate titration method, utilizes the characteristics of silver nitrate that reacts with chloride ions to measure the salinity %. 

Created on 10/31/11 at 10:37:41

Conversley, some of the more popular salt meters emloy the electric conductivity method.  Both methods measure the salinity but operate on different measurement principles.  However, by creating a conversion table between the two testing methods, correlation between the set of results can be seen.

Created on 10/31/11 at 10:41:32  

Aside from the measurement capabilities of each approach there are pros and cons to each.

 
 Pro's and Con's

 

Salt Meter

Titration

 Measurement Range

Less..maybe

More

 Accuracy

Less

 More

 Ease of Use

More

 Less

 Time to test

Less

 More

 Cost

 Less

 More

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

While each method has benefits we have recently found through some informal surveying that some food processors are choosing to use both methods.  These companies are finding that it is easier to use the hand held devices and perform quick spot checks on the production line.  If any problems are identified on the production line then further verification and testing can be performed using the titration approach.  Some think using this collaborative approach is ideal.smiley2

 

ALSO READ OUR MOST RECENT UPDATES TO THIS BLOG POST : Salt related posts

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I'm Having Problems with my Volumetric Karl Fischer Titrator

By Hank Levi on Fri, Jul 29, 2011 @ 11:55 AM

Most operators who measure moisture Volumetric Karl Fischer Titratorusing a Volumetric Karl Fischer Titrator tend to have difficulty in 3 areas.   Unlike Coulometric Karl Fischer Titrators where the equipment setup and reagents are fairly straight forward, Volumetric Karl Fischer Titrators differ greatly.  Understanding how a Volumetric Karl Fischer Titrator differs and how the equipment functions is not only paramount in terms of knowing how to operate the instrument it is critical if you want to obtain accurate and repeatable results.

8 out of 10 questions we receive usually fall into one of these 3 problem areas:

 

  1. What REAGENTS should I use for testing my samples?  Titrants, Composites, Solvents?

  2. "TITER VALUE" ..Who, What, Where, Why and How?

  3. "SAMPLE SIZE" ..How much do I need or should I use? 

Although these 3 areas at first may seem problematic and unrelated they are not.  In this 9-minute presentation we will explain why the burette size matters, how to calculate a correct sample size and explain how the volumetric titrator reagent strengths work.  Tying all three areas together will hopefully not only clear up some of the mysteries surrounding Volumetric Karl Fischer Titration but also empower operators with choices for conducting tests under varied conditions.  And, oh yes, obtain accurate and repeatable results every time. 

Created on 07/29/11 at 11:54:29

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